LK5_Mauss

Marcel Mauss

Ed. Dobrosława Wężowicz-Ziółkowska, Emilia Wieczorkowska

 

Table of content:

Marcel Mauss: biographical transgressions

Emilia Wieczorkowska, Marcel Mauss – student, researcher, teacher

Ewelina Pępiak, Solidarity, politics and difference. Marcel Mauss as an intellectual and an activist

Sylvain Dzimira, Democracy and critique of Bolshevism. How to express objection without massacre [Démocratie et critique du bolchevisme. Qu’il faut savoir s’opposer sans se massacre]

Marcel Mauss: methodological transgressions

Dobrosława Wężowicz-Ziółkowska, Do ut des. Marcel Mauss’ theory of gift and the biology of cooperation

Sylvain Dzimira, Agon and its connection with democratic ethos [De l’agon et de son rapport à l’ethos démocratique]

Marek Pacukiewicz, Connector

Małgorzata Kołodziej, Non-baptistic epistemology. Constructing the space image in the Marcel Mauss’ work

Ewelina Pępiak, After Mauss. The struggle within the French cultural studies

Postscript and contexts: Interpretative transgressions

Anna Bara, Mauss and „La Revue du M.A.U.S.S.”

Emilia Wieczorkowska, “To interlace human history with the history of thoughts”. Review of the Stefan Czanowski’s letters to Henri Hubert and Marcel Mauss

Marek Pacukiewicz, Adam Pisarek, Laboratory in the Studio: Gift. Sketches A.D. 2015. Second reconnaissance

Marek Pacukiewicz, Landscapes of the netting. Zbigniew Blukacz’s cosmography

Zbigniew Blukacz, Paintings

 

Content / Summary:

 

Emilia Wieczorkowska, Marcel Mauss – student, researcher, teacher

The article introduces the social and cultural context in which the author of The Gift lived. Marcel Mauss is presented in relation with Émile Durkheim, the founder of The French School of Sociology and Mauss’ close relative. With the passing of time Mauss – not rejecting his uncle’s theories – became the independent researcher, recognized as a founder of French ethnology.

Keywords: Marcel Mauss, Émile Durkheim, socjology, ethnology, Jews in France

 

Ewelina Pępiak, Solidarity, politics and difference. Marcel Mauss as an intellectual and an activist

A life-long work dedicated to promoting democratic socialism, the critique of colonialism and juxtaposing nation and nationalism in Marcel Mauss’s papers, lectures and speeches are strikingly up to date. The political writings of Mauss conjure up a question no contemporary cultural critic can escape: should or can the ideological context of the societies intellectuals live in and analyse render them activists?

Keywords: anti-utilitarianism, colonialism, democracy, solidarity, nation

 

Sylvain Dzimira, Democracy and critique of Bolshevism. How to express objection without massacre [Démocratie et critique du bolchevisme. Qu’il faut savoir s’opposer sans se massacre]

This chapter of Sylvain Dzimira’s book brings forth the ideological division between democratic socialism he was advocating and the violent power struggle within the communist fraction of the French socialist party in the 1920 y. Thanks to collecting all the political essays in a volume entitled Ecrits Politiques, Dzimira has contributed to shedding light on Mauss’s activism.

Keywords: bolshevism, revolution, violence, cooperation, gift, socialism

 

Dobrosława Wężowicz-Ziółkowska, Do ut des. Marcel Mauss’ theory of gift and the biology of cooperation

The article aims to reinterpret Marcel Mauss’ theory of gift with the help of modern science – evolutionary biology, neuroscience and evolutionary psychology. It refers to the main concepts of the theory of gift, which, according to Mauss is based on the rule of do ut des. The article points out the reasons for its relevance and proposes a thesis that Mauss’ ideas of morality, upon which social relations are built, have a basis in evolution. This thesis is established on the basis of findings of contemporary biology.
Keywords: biology of cooperation, animal altruism, exchange of gift, genetics, neuroscience

 

Sylvain Dzimira, Agon and its connection with democratic ethos [De l’agon et de son rapport à l’ethos démocratique]

The role of the gift in the functioning of societies has a profound political dimension. In his work dedicated to the political philosophy of Mauss’s ideas Sylvain Dzimira argues that there is a link between the gift and the modern democracies. Dzimira analyses how Mauss, through his concise research, gives evidence to a claim that the gift contributes to more community – based and less hierarchy, based societies. In other words, the gift is a source of democracy.

Keywords: gift, exchange, rivalry, democracy, hierarchy, ethos

 

Marek Pacukiewicz, Connector

For describing the essence of mana, Marcel Mauss uses a metaphor of „connector”, which can be considered as a function of a total description of cultural context. This function is well seen if the problem is analyzed via Claude Lévi-Strauss or Jacques Derrida’s texts.

The metaphor of connector as „the part of the complexed subject predicate, reducing the content of the predicative expression in terms of the time” can be extended on the anthropological field work problematics. While Malinowski, in his culture research, attempts to think in “whole sentences” in the first place for later “grammatical parsing”, Mauss not having a wider context of the utterance, but owning individual “parts of sentence”, has to emphasize on the element connecting them in the logic completeness. Lévi-Strauss, in turn, according to the structural linguistics rules, searches for “realistic” morphology of the cultures’ sentences. Then, their superficial stratum of their sense is used as a path, that leads straight to the phonologic relations tier.

Correlated positions triggers the problem of “presence”, which stops being the philosophical question, but has the methodological and contextual character in anthropology.

Keywords: Marcel Mauss, mana, context, cultural anthropology, social anthropology

 

Małgorzata Kołodziej, Non-baptistic epistemology. Constructing the space image in the Marcel Mauss’ work

Marcel Mauss, in Seasonal Variations of the Eskimo: a Study in Social Morphology, assumes that a acknowledge of spacial context is necessary to acknowledge the culture in a whole and that should be a basis for investigating further aspects of the culture. However, he did not experience this context personally. Instead of that, Mauss focuses on few factors that – in a complex – give a general view on Eskimo living space. It is a starting point for research on another aspects of their culture (religion, legal and religious system, family life) and their seasonal variations. The aim of the article is to analyze Mauss’ methods of creating space in his works, noting that instead of experiencin the field personally, he based on preceding ethnological works. Another aim is to show the methodological bases of the “looking from the distance” method practised by Mauss.
Keywords: Marcel Mauss, spaces’ construction, space, epistemology, Eskimo societies

 

Ewelina Pępiak, After Mauss. The struggle within the French cultural studies

Marcel Mauss has on numerous occasions highlighted the necessity to apply fieldwork and theoretical tools developed within social sciences to analyse contemporary societies. Despite tools to conduct such research developed by Pierre Bourdieu, postcolonial studies and the problems related to racism in the French society have been largely ignored in the academia. The cultural hegemony of the universalist French culture with its tendency to ignore the French cultural diversity thwarts the efforts to grasp contemporary problems in the French society. The post-colonial landscape of the French humanities displays two conflicting tendencies – that of the conservative proponents of “la mission civilisatrice”, and the new generation of militant researchers. Maxime Cervulle and Marie-Hélène Bourcier, among others, critically approach the issues of racism within the feminist thought, the politics of representing immigration and Islam in the media, and above all, they have set out on a scrutiny into the institutional exclusions intrinsic in the cultural politics of the Fifth Republic.
Keywords: cultural studies, postcolonialism, academic conservatism, French cultural studies

 

Anna Bara, Mauss and „La Revue du M.A.U.S.S.” 

In 1981 in France academic journal called „ M.A.U.S.S.” [Mouvement anti-utilitariste dans les sciences sociales, it means anti-banausic movement in social sciences] has been established. The main idea for the authors was to continue and develop the assumptions of Marcel Mauss’ sociology, with special regard to the theory of gift and cooperation. An overview into the following issues, of the journal which is still being released, proves that this theory is still actual, inspiring the new generations of social scientists. One of the most interesting aspects of their researches is an attempt to reference classical Mauss’ theory to the contemporary phenomena. The aim of the article is to introduce works of “La Revue…” to the Polish readers.
Keywords: M.A.U.S.S., academic journal, anti-utilitarism, gift paradigm, social criticism

 

Emilia Wieczorkowska, “To interlace human history with the history of thoughts”. Review of the Stefan Czanowski’s

The article is a report of the letters collection issued in 2015, written by the Polish sociologist and culture researcher Stefan Czarnowski to Marcel Mauss and Henri Hubert. The correspondence is a testimony of the relations between Czarnowski and French sociologists. It also shows how Polish science resurrected after I world war and the years of partition. Editors of this issue emphasize on showing how Durkheim’s ideas were adopted in Poland.

Keywords: Stefan Czarnowski, Marcel Mauss, Henri Hubert, letters, history of polish science

 

Marek Pacukiewicz, Adam Pisarek, Laboratory in the Studio: Gift. Sketches A.D. 2015. Second reconnaissance

The article introduces the analysis and interpretation of the works prepared by students of The Academy of Fine Arts in Katowice as a part of the project “Gift. Sketches A.D. 2015”. Artistic creation has been treated as a kind of ethnographical material which describes the phenomenon of the gift in contemporary Polish culture in a particular way.

Keywords: gift, Marcel Mauss, contemporary art, anthropology of art

 

Marek Pacukiewicz, Landscapes of the netting. Zbigniew Blukacz’s cosmography

Zbigniew Blukacz’s paintings fit in the contemporary considerations about the form and content of the cultural landscape. The work of the artist documents the mediation between the nature and culture. It brings back the contextuality of the landscape, but it also presents the landscape as an effect of the interpretative work of culture. Nevertheless, the central point of this work is still a human: creator of the culture placed in the space.
Keywords: Zbigniew Blukacz, landscape, road, cultural context