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Jan Aleksander Karłowicz

Ed. Anna Gomóła, Adam Pisarek

 

Table of content:

Ewa Kosowska, Cases of don Karlos

Halina Karaś, Jan Karłowicz as a linguist

Mirosław Dawlewicz, Irena Fedorowicz, Jan Karłowicz and Lithuanian matters

Anna Gomóła, Małgorzata Rygielska, A guide for persons choosing books for children and teenagers. About some aspects of Jan Karłowicz’s educational activity

Adam Pisarek, Styles of writing. On text organization in Karłowicz’s Chata polska [Polish cottage]

Małgorzata Kołodziej, Around Polish cottage. Few remarks on the margin of Jan Aleksander Karłowicz’s and Kazimierz Mokłowski’s texts

Małgorzata Laburda, Jan Aleksander Karłowicz’s views on the subject of cultural studies in the nineteenth century

Anna Gomóła, Marek Pacukiewicz, „Laboratory in the Studio: Polish AD Cottage 2015”

Interpretation of Literature Lab, Polish AD Cottage 2015

Jakub Dziewit, Portraits in the context

Stanisław Baj, Paintings

Bartosz Hlebowicz, „More cruel than tigers”. Warfare, torture, dreams and myths of the Iroquois

 

Content / Summary:

 

Ewa Kosowska, Cases of don Karlos 

Published in 1867 monograph Don Karlos, Spanish prince is one of the most often omitted works of Jan Karłowicz. It sometimes appears with remark that on its basis he, unsuccessfully, applied for a position of associate professor in Szkoła Główna in Warsaw. This article is an explanation of the basic thesis of Karłowicz’s monograph, as well as causes, for which such interpretation of the history of infant prince was not welcomed by the readers of that time.

Keywords: Don Karlos, Jan Aleksander Karłowicz, Szkoła Główna

 

Halina Karaś, Jan Karłowicz as a linguist

The paper aims at demonstrating Jan Karłowicz, a prominent figure of Polish science and culture at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, and his input on language studies, especially these concerning the Polish language, since it is the domain in which his major scientific achievements were made. His interests and research fields encompassed a number of areas of linguistics. Jan Karłowicz is mostly recognized as a lexicographer and lexicologist, dialectologist and etymologist; less known are his endeavours in onomastics, prescriptive linguistics (both in theory, and in practice), editing, or history of language. Undoubtedly, Karłowicz made the most significant contribution to lexicography. He is remembered as the initiator and co-author of Słownik warszawski (‘The Warsaw Dictionary’)—the largest collection of Polish vocabulary. However, he is less known as a theoretical lexicographer, even though he is the author of Przyczynki do wielkiego projektu słownika polskiego (1876) (‘Towards the great dictionary of Polish’). It is the first comprehensive, methodological work devoted to the micro- and macrostructure of a dictionary, and it provides insight into lexicographer’s techniques at the close of the 19th century. The accuracy, thoroughness, extensiveness, and innovativeness of Karłowicz’s framework make it a still valid lexicographic resource. Karłowicz’s further lexicographic works reflected his other interests, i.e. dialectology and etymology. It resulted in compiling two dictionaries: the six-volume Słownik gwar polskich [‘Dictionary of Polish Dialects’], and Słownik wyrazów obcego a mniej jasnego pochodzenia w języku polskim używanych [‘Dictionary of Words of Foreign and Unclear Origin Used in the Polish Language’]. As far as methodology is concerned, both dictionaries are highly esteemed, and they still constitute a valuable source for research into dialectal vocabulary and borrowings. Słownik gwar polskich is the first (and in fact only) dictionary of Polish dialectal vocabulary, and the first one to be compiled in the Slavonic language area, while the pioneering Słownik wyrazów obcego a mniej jasnego pochodzenia… deftly employs the etymological expertise of the time. Karłowicz’s contribution to the research into folk etymology is also worth noting. He is the author of the first reliable scientific work concerning this issue found in the Polish (and not just Polish) linguistics. Słoworód ludowy [‘Folk Etymology’] is a valuable publication, analyzing numerous examples of folk etymology in Polish, presenting the origin and the mechanism of the discussed phenomena, as well as providing suitable classification thereof. The classification constitutes Karłowicz’s most important and most original input on folk etymology research. Apparently, it was Karłowicz’s dictionaries that proved to be the most valued, and earned their place in the history of both dialectology and etymology. Thus, Jan Karłowicz may be chiefly described as a lexicographer who rendered great service to many disciplines of Polish language studies—with special emphasis on dialectology, etymology and onomastics.

Key words: linguistics, dialectology, etymology, lexicography, onomastics, history of humanities

 

Mirosław Dawlewicz, Irena Fedorowicz, Jan Karłowicz and Lithuanian matters

At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries the relations between Poles and Lithuanians would be simplified if we spoke only in terms of the conflicts and disputes. There was observed also another direction. Among the Poles there appeared a number of enlightened persons – writers and scientists, who gained huge authority. Jan Karłowicz, a famous Polish scholar, who worked and conducted his research during the second half of the 19th century, held a special place in this group. He was born in Lithuania and was closely tied with his homeland for almost half a century. The cultural heritage of the Great Duchy of Lithuania is dominant in his numerous writings. Jan Karłowicz was one of the first researchers who paid attention to the very complicated social, linguistic and cultural situation in Lithuania. He investigated it using the latest scientific methods and applying the vast knowledge, which he acquired at foreign universities. He is also considered to be one of the first Polish scholars who started investigating Lithuanian dialectology, etymology and onomastics as well as the Lithuanian language and tried to give them closer ties with the Polish society. J. Karłowicz witnessed the resurgence of the Lithuanian national movement and embraced it understandingly. His views and extensive activities have positively contributed to the Polish-Lithuanian relations, which consisted not only of conflicts and disputes, but also attempts to understand each other.

Keywords: Jan Karłowicz, Polish-Lithuanian relations, correspondence, Aušra ( Jutrzenka) journal

 

Anna Gomóła, Małgorzata Rygielska, A guide for persons choosing books for children and teenagers. About some aspects of Jan Karłowicz’s educational activity

This article presents the circumstances around the creation, as well as content and composition of Jan Karłowicz’s A guide for persons choosing books for children and teenagers published in 1881 in Vilnius. The book published by “Wydawnictwo E.Orzeszkowej I S-ki” was a part of, designed by Eliza Orzeszkowa, larger series targeted mainly to readers in Latvia. Her conviction about the necessity for a special editing of the reading guide, raised the need to contact (unknown in person) Karłowicz. This cooperation, in turn, gave rise to a friendship which can be seen in the partially documented correspondence between the two (Orzeszkowa’s letters to Karłowicz). The present article shows, among others, Karłowicz’s view on the role of literary works in the educational process in context of nineteenth century pedagogical concepts. Author of the Guide, with accordance to the reading lists of that time, indicates the importance of reading in upbringing and the educational process of XIX century young Poles. In his regard, the most important ones (which he gives the adequate space and attention) are the works on Polish and general history (including historical synthesis and historical novels, adapted to the cognitive capabilities of a young reader); he also puts some emphasis on the teaching of the Polish language. What’s interesting for culture scholars – Karłowicz lists selected ethnographic works as valuable. The contemporary opinions on the Guide, often contrasting to the extreme, make for an interesting context to the facts presented in this article. The question: was Karłowicz an educator, remains unanswered. However statement that his work (both scholarly and didactical) influenced many Poles, is undoubtedly true.

Keywords: Jan Karłowicz, Eliza Orzeszkowa, “Wydawnictwo E.Orzeszkowéj i S-ki”, education and upbringing in XIX century, reading list, reading guide, didactical guide

 

Adam Pisarek, Styles of writing. On text organization in Karłowicz’s Chata polska [Polish cottage]

This article speaks of the issues of circulation of evolutionistic ideas within anthropological and cultural field of discourse. Author focuses on several chosen features of this field, which allow for “journeying” of certain terminology and non-articulated premises of the theory. The main goal of this text is to answer the question: why, created by Jan Aleksander Karłowicz in Polish cottage evolutionary-linguistic-archeological “bricolage”, was a scientifically acceptable construction? To answer this question, author needs to analyze the ways of scholar’s use of categories and types embedded in the order of writing, understood as styles which mirror the reality – coding some of its aspects.

Keywords: Jan Aleksander Karłowicz, styles, evolutionism, Polish cottage

 

Małgorzata Kołodziej, Around Polish cottage. Few remarks on the margin of Jan Aleksander Karłowicz’s and Kazimierz Mokłowski’s texts

This article attempts at a comparison of two works about the housing industry (carpentry) – Chata polska [Polish cottage] by Jan Aleksander Karłowicz and Sztuka ludowa w Polsce [Polishfolk artistry] by Kazimierz Mokołowski. Chata polska, declared as inspirational by Mokłowski, is a starting point for the author of this article, which will include the explanation of relation of both texts.

Keywords: household, evolution, polish cottage, Jan Karłowicz, Kaziemierz Mokłowski

 

Małgorzata Laburda, Jan Aleksander Karłowicz’s views on the subject of cultural studies in the nineteenth century

This article is a discussion of Jan Aleksander Karłowicz’s concept of relations between particular cultural sciences in the nineteenth century. Author has referred herself to the terms ethnography, ethnology, folklore and folklore studies. They were coined by the scholar and published in the XIXth and XXIst tome of Wielka encyclopedia powszechna wierszowana as well as in the article Narodowy folklor polski issued in Pamiętnik Zjazdu literatów i dziennikarzy polskich 1894. Gathered material helped show the scholar’s own understanding and naming of cultural studies and the relations he draws between, among others, ethnic and folklore studies.

Keywords: Jan Karłowicz, ethnography, ethnology, ethnic studies, folklore, folklore studies

 

Anna Gomóła, Marek Pacukiewicz, „Laboratory in the Studio: Polish AD Cottage 2015”

The article introduces the analysis and interpretation of the works prepared by the students of The Academy of Fine Arts in Katowice who have worked the project entitled “Laboratory in the Studio: Polish AD Cottage 2015.” In this case artistic creation has been treated as a kind of ethnographical material which by particular describes the phenomenon of cultural pattern of the notion of “home” in contemporary Polish culture. It has become clear that within the scope of various artistic expression we find relatively limited number of semantic connotation of the cultural notion of “home.”

Keywords: home, work of art, anthropology of art

 

Jakub Dziewit, Portraits in the context

The aim of this article is to present Stanisław Baj’s (significant painter from Podlasie region) work and to suggest how can it be interpreted in context of certain anthropological themes.

Key words: Stanisław Baj, painting, anthropology and art, anthropology of art

 

Bartosz Hlebowicz, „More cruel than tigers”. Warfare, torture, dreams and myths of the Iroquois

I propose an ethnohistorical analysis of Iroquois warfare, with the main focus on seventeenth century practices. The Iroquois were portrayed in nineteenth century historiography were portrayed as bloodthirsty savages, a view undoubtedly fueled by an ongoing warfare with their neighbors and distant peoples alike. The main goal of the Iroquoian warfare was to capture prisoners and then, after subjecting them to violent torture, adopting them into the Iroquoian clans and families. Rejecting one-sided ideological interpretations which portray the Iroquois as either mindless brutes or crafty peace seekers, I attempt to explain the phenomenon of the “cruelty” of the Iroquois from an anthropological perspective. Support for my theory is drawn from various sources: accounts of seventeenth century missionaries and travelers, Iroquois’ myths, vast literature on the subject, as well as from various anthropological and religious theories designed to explain similar phenomena in other parts of the globe.

Keywords: Iroquois, Hurons, warfare, tortures, dream visions, myths, cultural anthropology, Jesuit Relations